An initiative by the federation to creating awareness about general blood education
What is Blood
Blood is a combination of plasma and cells that float in it. It is a specialized bodily body fluid that supplies essential substances and nutrients, such as sugar, oxygen, and hormones to our cells, and carries waste away. This waste is eventually flushed out of the body in urine, feces, sweat, and lungs. Blood also contains clotting agents. Plasma constitutes 55% of blood fluid in humans and other vertebrates. Apart from water, plasma also contains: Blood cells, carbon dioxide, glucose (sugar), hormones and proteins. Types of Blood cells: Red blood cells, White blood cells (leukocytes) and Platelets (thrombocytes).
Who needs blood
Blood donors are quiet heroes to..
- Accident victims
- Cancer Patients
- Pregnant mothers / Post Delivery
- Leukemia Patients
- Thalassemia Patients
- Heart surgery Patients
- Newborn Babies Requiring Blood
- Bleeding Ulcers
- Patients with Burn Injuries
- Patients undergoing Major surgeries
- and more...
What is Leucodepletion?
Fresh cellular blood components such as red cells and platelet concentrates contain a variable number of donor white cells (leucocytes). Leucodepletion is a process that removes these white cells from blood components usually by means of a special filter. Leucodepleted blood components should contain less than 5 x 106 white cells per unit. White cells can be removed either in the laboratory before storage (pre-storage leucodepletion) or at the bedside using special filters (bedside leucodepletion).
Leucodepletion brings a number of benefits to the transfused patients. These include:
- Reduction of febrile non-haemolytic transfusion reactions
- Prevention or delay of primary immunisation to human leucocyte antigens
- Prevention or delay of platelet refractoriness due to alloimmunisation
- Reduced risk of CMV transmissions
Leucodepletion has other theoretical advantages as well:
- Reduce the risk of other leucocyte-associated blood borne infections, i.e. - reduced transmission of HTLV 1 and 2
- Less risk of inadvertent bacterial contamination of blood components
- Reduce the risk of peri-operative infection or cancer recurrence by reducing the immunomodulatory effects of blood transfusion
- May reduce risk of transfusion related acute lung injury (TRALI)
Why do we need to move from bedside filtration to pre-storage filtration?
Pre-storage leucodepletion refers to removal of leucocytes from blood components early in the component preparation process. Pre-storage leucodepletion is safer, more reliable and more cost effective than the bedside process. As the white cells are removed before fragmentation there is less release of cytokines and the infective agents present in the leucocytes. As a consequence patients may experience fewer transfusion reactions and other complications of transfusions. As the process is carried out in a laboratory environment there is high quality process control, better quality standards and potentially better patient outcome. It will also remove problems associated with bedside filtration such as clogged white cell filters and result in a saving of nursing time.
What are Blood Stem Cells
Blood stem cells are precursor cells that develop into red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets, replacing a transplant patient's diseased or damaged stem cells. They are immature cells that can develop into any of the cells present in the blood stream. Three sources of stem cells are bone marrow, peripheral blood (PBSC) and blood collected from the umbilical cord and placenta after a baby is born.
Who needs a stem cell transplant
Stem cell transplants are most frequently required to treat Leukaemia (Blood Cancer), Thalasemia and other life threatening blood diseases
Does donating hurt? What are the side effects?
An anesthesia is used, the collection procedure is painless. Marrow donors may however feel some soreness in their lower back for a few days. They may feel tired and have difficulty in walking. Most donors however are back to their routine in a few days. PBSC donors usually have mild headache, bone or muscle pain, nausea, insomnia and fatigue while receiving filgrastin. During collection- donors may experience a tingling feeling or chills. Symptoms however disappear after the donation is complete.
What is Marrow Donor Registry-India (MDRI)
It is a database of HLA typed, potential, committed voluntary marrow donors to facilitate identification of suitable matches for patients suffering from life threatening blood diseases and who are in need of marrow/stem cell transplant. Its primary goal is to identify unrelated donors for patients in need of a blood stem cell transplant with no family member with a suitable HLA match.
Points to remember before enrolling as a marrow donor
Voluntary marrow donor enrolling into Marrow Donor Registry, must be between 18 to 60 years, in good health, with no history of cancer, diabetes, heart disease. He/she must not be grossly over weight or at high risk for contracting AIDS or seroreactive for HIV, HBV or HCV. Registration and HLA typing are the first steps towards becoming a volunteer stem cell donor. Further steps may include more blood testing, a medical examination, counselling, injections of filgrastin and ultimately collection of marrow or blood stem cells.